Fyodor Dolokhov – the Bad Guy from War and Peace

Tolstoy loosely based the character of Fyodor Dòlokhov in War and Peace on his cousin, Fyodor “the American” Tolstoy, who was in his time notorious throughout Russia. A careless and hot-headed guy, who fought duel after duel, had a serious gambling addiction and cheated with cards as if his life depended on it. I wrote about him on my blog here.

The Tough Guy

Dòlokhov we get to know as a rather tough guy, who lives with the rich Anatole Kurágin. Dòlokhov himself has no money or connections and appears to take advantage of Anatole. Tolstoy, however, leads the reader to believe that without Dòlokhov, Anatole would be boring and uninteresting, and that as such, Dòlokhov is the one being used. (Tolstoy frequently uses this method of inversion with great success, it makes his characters real and convincing, think of Nicholas rescuing Mary, which turned out to be Mary rescuing Nicholas). Dòlokhov takes advantage of his other friends and fellow officers by cheating with cards.

 

Nonetheless Dòlokhov is greatly admired in this circle of young rich men and officers for his courage, the way he holds his liquor, his dare and his carelessness. He lives his life without giving a shit what other people think, and who wouldn’t want to do that? In short, a party in St Petersburg wasn’t a party without Dòlokhov.

The Officer

In the army Dòlokhov does well because of his courage, but his recklessness earns him several downgrades from his rank as officer.

 

“As if tired of everyday life he had felt a need to escape from it by some strange, and unusually cruel, action.”

 

Pierre Bezúkhov considers Dòlokhov his friend too, and lets himself be seduced by him. Later, after rumours of an affair with his wife Hélène, he sees him as a ruthless murderer, who takes pleasure in hurting other people, precisely because they have been (too) good to him. Because of that (an affair wasn’t generally a good enough reason to challenge someone) Pierre challenges Dòlokhov to a duel.

Although Pierre has never before fired a gun and Dòlokhov has had plenty of experience, Dòlokhov ends up seriously injured after the duel. Years later, on the eve of the Battle of Borodino, the two meet again. Apparently Dòlokhov has understood what the rest of the world didn’t: Pierre is not to be taken for a fool. He asks Pierre to forgive him.

Fyodor “the Persian” Dòlokhov

Like the American, Dòlokhov disappears from Russia for a while. When he returns he is dressed as a Persian and wild rumours of his actions in Persia circulate.

The Cheater

It is the people who are good to Dòlokhov who bring out the worst in him. The young and naive Nicholas Rostòv adores him, but Dòlokhov makes him lose 43.000 roubles, cheating him with cards. Dòlokhov had set the number 43 in advance, as that was the sum of his and Sonya’s ages. He had asked Sonya to marry him, but she declined because she was in love with Nicholas. After Nicholas loses terribly the Rostòvs get into serious financial trouble.

The Bastard

Years later the youngest Rostòv, Petya, by now also an officer, has a fatal meeting with Dolokhov. He too admires him no end. His hunger for action in the war against Napoleon is enormous, and he is convinced that he will find it there where Dòlokhov is. Against all orders he hurtles himself into a gunfight to prove to Dòlokhov that he is a real man. He gets shot by the French and Dòlokhov’s cold reaction is merely “Done for!”, as if the utterance of these words afforded him pleasure. And so, once more, the Rostòv family becomes the victim of the ruthless Dòlokhov.

 

Fyodor “the American” Tolstoy married his gypsy girl, paid a high price for his crimes and led a quiet life ever since. If the same can be said of Fyodor “the Persian” Dòlokhov, we will never know.

 

 

Book: War and Peace from Tolstoy

Photos: the BBC and liveinternet.ru

Denisov – the good guy from War and Peace

 

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Love in War and Peace 2

The rise and fall and rise of Countess Nataly (Natásha) Ilyinichna Rostóva

Natásha. Out of all 580 characters she captivates us perhaps the most. Although Tolstoy depicts her as particularly sweet and attractive, she devours no less than four men in the course of her young life. The reader experiences a whole range of emotions with her. Now you're shouting out loud to her and in the next book you're reaching for the tissues. Natásha. Such a character!

Boris

Her first love at the age of thirteen is Boris Drubetskoy. The love evaporates when Boris is at the front.

Prince Andrey

In 1808 she meets Prince Andrey Nikolayevich Bolkonski (an at least ten years older widower, who's wife Lise died giving birth) for the first time. At Natásha's first important ball in 1809 they dance together and Andrey is charmed by her. They get engaged, but Andrey's father insists they wait a few years before they get married. Andrey has to go back to the army and leaves Natásha alone for an indefinite period.

Anatole Kurágin

Then we come to the bit that upsets us the most: in a turn of events least expected, Natásha lets herself be seduced by that obnoxious Anatole Kurágin. Our dear, sweet, honest Natásha!

Anatole has seen Natásha for the first time at that same important ball and looks at her “as one looks at a wall”(!). Countess Hélène Bezúkhov (Pierres unfaithful wife, also suspected of incestuous relations with Anatole) introduces Anatole to the still happily engaged Natásha in 1811. Anatole immediately makes it clear to her that he finds her attractive and wants to start an affair with her.

With help from scoundrel Dòlokhov, Anatole decides to abduct Natásha. He tells her that they will get married, even though that is impossible, because he is already married, but only (Count) Pierre (Bezukhov) and Dòlokhov know that. In a fit of complete and utter insanity Natásha agrees to this idiotic plan and breaks off her engagement with Andrey. Because she knows very well that her family would has different opinion about Anatole, she keeps it a all secret. Anatole, meanwhile, obviously only wants to sleep with her.

Dumbfounded. Yes, I wasn't Andrey's biggest fan either. He comes across as rather arrogant. But they were in love, and Natásha appeared to have a positive effect on him, while she became more serious.

Thanks to Sonya, Anatole is found out. When Pierre hears about it, he gets so angry that he gives both his wife and Anatole a piece of his mind. He sends Anatole to St Petersburg and tries to keep the scandal in Moscow to a minimum.

Reunion with Andrey

Natásha is ill (depressed) for a long time and Andrey becomes his former satirical self again. In 1812 he gets seriously wounded in action and fate reunites him with Natásha. She looks after him and the two of them still have feelings for each other. Soon they are dreaming of a future together again. It is not to be, Andrey dies and again Natásha is alone and heartbroken.

“When she smiled doubt was no longer possible, it was Natásha and he loved her.”

Luckily Pierre returns in 1813. He has been through the wars in every sense (imprisoned and Hélène has died from an abortion). The moment he sees Natásha again he feels certain that she is the one and he wants to marry her as soon as possible. For Natásha too life gets it's meaning back again. They get married and live happily ever after.

Why?!

So why did Natásha allow herself to be seduced by that repulsive Anatole?! Already in the beginning Andrey warns Pierre about the Kurágins. Undoubtedly he has also mentioned his feelings to Natásha. When Pierre asks Natásha if she loved Anatole, she has no answer. Apparently Natásha, of whom Tolstoy says more than once that her intuition is infallible, was completely blinded by the attention she got from Anatole. She was after all still very young, and probably got tired from all that waiting (she had to wait for a very long time, not knowing even if he was still alive) for Andrey, whereas Anatole offered her excitement.

But there is also a prosaic explanation: if Pierre and Natásha, who liked each other from the start, had gotten married without any further obstacles, War and Peace would not be the wonderful, all-embracing and compelling novel it is now.

 

Photos from the BBC

War and Peace by Tolstoy, of course!

 

Love in War and Peace 1

 

“Heaven only knows where we are going, and heaven only knows what is happening to us – but it is very strange and pleasant, whatever it is.”

The Troika Ride

My absolute favourite scene in War and Peace (book 7, chapters 9-13) is the exhilarating troyka drive that the young Rostovs make at Christmas. This scene is described so well that you can actually hear the bells of the troika, and the irons of the sleigh swishing through the fresh snow. It's so full of life and it comes to life so well, perhaps only Tolstoy can achieve that.

A Kiss

In the next scene Nicholas Rostov seals his love for his (full!) cousin Sonya with a kiss. Sonya, who is dressed up as a Circassian, with black eyebrows and moustache, looks more attractive and sweeter than ever. Nicholas sees her in a new light and he can't get enough of her, he keeps looking back at her beaming face with those black eyebrows and that moustache, framed by a big fur collar. He is definitely convinced that Sonya is his future wife and happiness.

Mary

And yet it doesn't end up like that; Nicholas marries Mary. Excuse me?! A few weeks ago I went to sleep peacefully because Sonya and Nicholas were going to be happily married and now all of a sudden he's going to marry Mary? How?! Nicholas and Sonya belong together!

Prince Charming

Nicholas meets Mary for the first time on the estate that she has very recently inherited from her father. She needs to escape from the French, who are invading Russia, and rapidly approaching her estate. But her staff is unwilling to help their new mistress. She is at her wits' end when completely coincidentally Nicholas arrives. He rescues her and naturally becomes her Prince Charming.

There is however a small obstacle. It was apparently no problem for full cousins to get married in 19th century Russia, but siblings-in-law was a different story. And Nicholas' sister Natásha had been engaged to Mary's brother Andrew. She had broken off the engagement and tried to elope with Anatole, which was luckily prevented by our sweet Sonya. But now Andrew had been seriously injured in the war and Natasha was looking after him, and their love was blossoming again.

Andrew dies, and after several complications Nicholas and Mary get married. They settle down on Mary's estate, with his mother and Sonya! That sweet Sonya! She accepts her fate and becomes a favourite aunt for the future children, not unlike Tolstoy's own favourite aunt Toinette.

Mary or Sonya

The marriage works surprisingly well. Nicholas may have saved Mary, but she has saved him too. Thanks to her fortune the whole Rostov family has been saved. Sonya could not have done that. But still, the reader is left with the feeling that Nicholas would have been happier with Sonya. On more than one occasion Tolstoy tells us that Nicholas can easily imagine a happy future with Sonya, their relationship is entirely natural, whereas his feelings for Mary needed time to grow.

In a way it was easier for Mary to present herself as a suitable marriage candidate, thanks to her title and money. Sonya had no money of her own and was completely dependant on the Rostovs. On top of that Nicholas' mother was against their marriage and Sonya was torn between loyalty towards the family as a whole and her profound love for Nicholas. It is only when the traditional roles are reversed, when she is wearing trousers and Nicholas is wearing a dress, that she dares to fully give in to her passion. Unfortunately the war interferes and Nicholas meets Mary.

 

War and Peace by L.N.Tolstoy

Quote by Nicholas

Photo from the BBC, Sonya, Nicholas and Natasha

 

Is there really an incestuous relationship in War and Peace?

It won’t have escaped the attention of Russian literature fans that the BBC has made a brand new drama series based on War and Peace, currently airing on BBC1. Immediately after the first episode ended, there was a commotion on Twitter: an incestuous relationship between brother and sister Anatole and Hélène Kurágin?! Surely that wasn’t in the book!

Brother and sister have sex

As I seemed to remember that there was something the matter with them, I decided to investigate. And guess what.. the BBC is right! Obviously there is no sex scene between brother and sister in the book, unlike in the series, where Hélène is lying naked in bed, Anatole gets in bed with her, kisses her and touches her under the sheets, but Tolstoy nonetheless clearly suggests that something is going on.

Why Pierre marries Hélène

One of the main characters, Count Pierre Bezúkhov, is all of a sudden an ideal marriage candidate when he inherits the largest fortune in Russia. Prince Vasili Kurágin is short of money and wants to find a rich marriage partner for his youngest children, the both beautiful and stupid Anatole and Hélène. Obviously Pierre is the perfect candidate for Hélène. Together with his friend Anna Schérer he suggests to Pierre that he should marry his daughter.

Until then Pierre has never seen Hélène as anything else but a beautiful young woman. After the visit to Anna Schérer he suddenly sees her in a different light. Apparently this exquisite beauty could be his, Pierre’s, wife. He tosses and turns in his bed. But she’s stupid. And wasn’t there something wrong with her? He remembers a story he once heard:

“There is something nasty, something wrong in the feeling she excites in me. I have been told that her brother Anatole was in love with her and she with him, that there was a scandal and that’s why he was sent away.”

Nevertheless he puts his mind to ease. After all if everyone thinks this marriage is a good idea, why should he not marry her? They get married and of course it doesn’t take long before the trouble starts. Hélène doesn’t love Pierre, she’s only interested in her title and money. She has several affairs, with the ambitious Boris, that Natásha was in love with, and also with the notorious scoundrel Dólokhov. When Pierre find out he challenges Dólokhov to a duel. After the duel Hélène is furious with Pierre, why shouldn’t she have affairs, it’s none of his business. And Anatole is still in the picture too:

“Anatole used to come to borrow money from her and used to kiss her naked shoulders. She did not give him the money, but she let herself be kissed.”

There is another hint of incest concerning the brother and sister. Hélène has invited a famous French actress to her house to recite some French verses. About the guilty love of a mother for her son. During this soirée Anatole tries to seduce the confused Natasha again.

Aylmer Maude confirms it

Here translator, biographer and personal friend of Tolstoy, Aylmer Maude, makes the following note: “in the first drafts of the novel, Tolstoy made it plain that Hélène and her brother had been in guilty relations with one another, but afterwards he altered this so that only some hints remain.”.

Clearly Tolstoy really intended the incestuous relationship between Hélène and Anatole, but left only the suggestion because of the strict censure of the time. What makes it particularly peculiar is the fact that it takes place with mutual consent.

*****

-Photo from the BBC

-War and Peace by Tolstoy, translated by Aylmer Maude

 

Is Hadji Murat the improved version of War and Peace?

Earlier I wrote that Hadji Murat can be seen as a mini version of War and Peace. But did Tolstoy deliberately rewrite War and Peace?

Tolstoy’s final work of fiction

Tolstoy wrote Hadji Murat over the course of eight years at the end of his life, from 1896 until 1904. It is the last piece of fiction that he wrote and his wife Sophia cherished it particularly. Because at that time he also wrote What Is Art? (1897), in which he, among other things, condemns fiction, he felt obliged to write Hadji Murat on the side.

Similarities and oppositions

In both works we find a large number of characters, 580 in War and Peace and 151 in Hadji Murat. Tolstoy uses these characters, from a simple soldier up to the tsar, to illustrate the war from a wide variety of perspectives. Real and fictitious characters and facts are intermingled.

In both works domestic scenes are contrasted with military scenes; in War and Peace the family life plays a bigger part, in Hadji Murat it’s the other way around. The domestic life is often luxurious, whereas at the front things are kept simple.

War can be beautiful too

Tolstoy philosophises in both works about the reasons for warfare. The war is typically started by an ambitious ruler, spirals out of control and before you know it millions of people have lost their lives. But it’s not all evil; there are many cheerful military scenes, particularly in Hadji Murat, even though Tolstoy was a self-proclaimed pacifist around 1900. Perhaps out of nostalgia, having fought in the Caucasian war himself.

In the beginning of Hadji Murat a small scale gun fight takes place between Russian and Chechen soldiers, in which one soldier is killed. This fight is described as “… the incessant, merry, stirring rattle of our rifles began, accompanied by pretty dissolving cloudlets of smoke.”. In War and Peace there are similar battle scenes; on the morning of the Battle of Borodino, for instance, Pierre is mesmerised by the battlefield scene in front of him: “… these puffs of smoke and (strange to say) the sound of the firing produced the chief beauty of the spectacle.”.

The eyes are the mirror of the soul

One of the most beautiful scenes in War and Peace is the reunion of Nicholas, returning home on leave, and his youth love Sonya. Because this reunion takes place in the drawing room in front of the whole family, Nicholas keeps it formal. He kisses Sonya’s hands and addresses her with you in stead of thou, but “глаза их, встретившись, сказали друг другу “ты” и нежно поцеловались”, their eyes met and said thou and exchanged tender kisses.

Tolstoy uses the exact same construction in Hadji Murat: a formal meeting takes place between the hero of the story and the Commander-in-Chief Vorontsov. Hadji Murat is formally surrendering himself to the Russians. “Глаза этих двух людей, встретившись, говорили друг другу многое, невыразимое словами, и уж совсем не то, что говорил переводчик.”,the eyes of the two men met, and expressed to each other much that could not have been put into words and that was not at all what the interpreter said.

Thanks to those two sentences the reader now knows much, much more about the characters. Although Nicholas ends up being happily married to Mary, the reader cannot help but think that he would have been happier with Sonya. In the case of Hadji Murat we now know, already in the beginning of the story, that Hadji Murat’s surrender was not sincere, but motivated by the hope that with the help of the Russians he could free his family and that Vorontsov knew this too. And Vorontsov knowingly agreed, probably because it was a matter of prestige for the Russians to have the great naïb on their side. And so Tolstoy cleverly lets the reader draw their own conclusions and actively involves them into the story.

Conclusion

All these similarities can lead only to one conclusion: Tolstoy deliberately rewrote War and Peace, probably to convey his current outspoken ideas about pacifism, and perhaps to write one more final work of fiction before he died, in order to close off his literary career once and for all.

Louis Lejeune – Battle of Moscow (Wikipedia)

 

Reading list: War and Peace and Hadji Murat

For a review on Hadji Murat  https://booksyo.wordpress.com/2015/11/15/hadji-murat-by-leo-tolstoy/


 

Tolstoy and the Caucasus

Unlike Pushkin and Lermontov Tolstoy (1828-1910) went to the Caucasus voluntarily. He had accumulated considerable gambling debts in Moscow. Gambling addiction was a big problem with the Russian aristocracy, and the stakes could get really high. The Tolstoy family was no exception. Remember the American( http://wp.me/p5zzbs-2n )? When he couldn’t pay his debts anymore, he contemplated suicide, but his gypsy girlfriend gave him the money and saved him. The wild stories about Leo’s illustrious great uncle circulated in Moscow for years after his death in 1846.

Good intentions

In order to escape from his troubles in Moscow, Leo decided to join his brother Nikolay, who was positioned with the Russian army in the Caucasus. In their enthusiasm the brothers forgot to take into consideration the well known fact that the average Russian officer loves a game of cards. In no time at all Tolstoy was 850 roubles in debt again and was forced to sell off more of his inheritance. His other good intentions didn’t come to much either; he had gypsy girl after Cossack girl.

The start of his writing career

Tolstoy stayed in the Cossack village Starogladkovskaya for two and a half years. This period turned out to have a positive influence on his writing at least. He even started his writing career in the Caucasus. His war experiences there were used for War and Peace and several of his stories, like The Cossacks and Hadji Murad are situated in the Caucasus.

“He admired the Cossacks”

The novella The Cossacks (1862) is Tolstoy’s first masterpiece and it was Turgenev’s favourite. It starts like any Romantic story. The hero Olenin leaves his troubled past behind to start a new life in the Caucasus. Tolstoy himself, having read Pushkin and Lermontov, must have felt like that too when he made that journey. Tolstoy, however, is not a Romantic writer and Olenin is no Pechorin. Where Pechorin left a trail of destruction behind him, Olenin leaves no impression at all, he doesn’t get the girl and before he’s even out of sight he’s forgotten. This is a technique that Tolstoy uses frequently, making the familiar strange. Ironically Tolstoy needed the proceeds from this work to pay off more gambling debts.

Tolstoy’s final piece of fiction

At the end of his life, between 1896 and 1904, Tolstoy wrote his last masterpiece: Hadji Murad. At that time he wrote mainly religious and pacifist texts and had already declared that literature was a waste of time. As a result he felt guilty working on it. Perhaps we owe it to Turgenev’s deathbed plea that Tolstoy did once more what he was so extraordinarily good at: writing superb fiction. The story is based on a piece of Caucasian history from 1851, precisely the year that Tolstoy went to the Caucasus.

“This Hadji Murad was Shamil’s naïb”

It’s a typical Tolstoy story, actually a mini version of War and Peace. It tells the story of the dilemma that Hadji Murad, Chechen rebel leader and hero, faced in the final year of his restless life. We see Hadji Murad through the eyes of the Russians, who admire but also distrust him. We see him through the eyes of his own people, through women’s eyes and finally as a father whose family is being held hostage. It’s a bloody war story and to clear his conscience Tolstoy warns us at regular intervals: war is evil. Feel free to skip these passages and enjoy the great Tolstoy at his best. Tolstoy knew very well why people wage wars and why people like reading fiction. After all he was only human himself.

Hadji Murad in 1851 (Wikipedia)

The quotes are from The Cossacks and Hadji Murad.

The books I used were:

Tolstoy, A Russian Life by Rosamund Bartlett

Tolstoy by A.N. Wilson

Tolstoy’s enormous influence

Nowadays Tolstoy is best known for writing Anna Karenia and War and Peace. It seems strange therefore that the vast majority of the thousands who attended his funeral, had never read one of his books. They came for Tolstoy the anarchist, Tolstoy the advocate of rights for peasants, Tolstoy the campaigner for peaceful resistance.

Tolstoy’s aristocratic youth

Count Tolstoy was born on his family’s estate Yasnaya Polyana in 1828. His aristocratic heritage was even better than the tsar’s. After a rather wild youth filled with women, alcohol and a gambling addiction that nearly cost him his considerable inheritance, he decided to better his life. In 1858 he moved to Yasnaya Polyana. There he founded a school for the local peasants’ children. The aristocracy in Russia at the time did not just own their houses and estates; they also owned the souls who lived there, the peasants were actually slaves.

Tolstoy’s reformation

After he had written Anna Karenina, Tolstoy began to question his lifestyle more and more. He initially sought the solution in a strict religious life, he became a vegetarian, and quit smoking and drinking. He felt he could no longer take advantage of his privileged position and started to wear peasants’ clothes and work on his land. In 1873 he and his wife Sophia set up an enormous charity for the famine in Samara. They raised 1,867,000 roubles and 344,000 kilograms of grain. The whole Tolstoy family traveled to the affected area to offer practical help.

Typically for Tolstoy he showed his outrage in letters to the tsar and newspapers. He blamed the government’s mismanagement for the famine and reproached the government for leaving the victims without any help. Time after time Tolstoy used his fame and background to raise attention to social issues. His theories about non violent resistance caught the attention of Ghandi, and later influenced other great political figures like Martin Luther King JR, Václav Havel and Lech Walesa. Yasnaya Polyana became an international pilgrimage, where people in mental or financial need always found the door open. Tolstoy’s influence grew to such proportions, that people said that Russia had two tsars, Nicholas II and Tolstoy. The tsars during Tolstoy’s life were certainly not always happy with his opinions, but his status made him more or less untouchable.

Tolstoy’s death in Astapovo

After yet another fight with his wife (Sophia didn’t always agree with her husband), Tolstoy left Yasnaya Polyana in 1910. A few days later he fell ill during a train journey. He was laid to bed in a station master’s house. There he died a week later, while the whole world press gathered in the small station of Astapovo.

It takes a great deal of greatness to write a masterpiece like War and Peace, but a great deal more to stand up for your beliefs.

I have read with great pleasure the following books:

Tolstoy, a Russian Life from Rosamund Bertlett

Tolstoy from A. N. Wilson

I also enjoyed the film The Last Station with Christopher Plummer and Helen Mirren.

How shall I ever get through War and Peace?

Tolstoy will always be in vogue

Day three, page 24. Only 1498 pages to go! The tension is building up; is Napoleon going to win the war with Russia?

The image of Russian literature

A small survey among friends shows that many people consider War and Peace too big a challenge. It may well be the thickest (566000 words!) book you’ll ever read. It was written 150 years ago and it’s about a war even longer ago. And, as one of my friends puts it, Russian literature is dark and depressing. Why on earth would you put yourself through that?

War and Peace is the best book ever

War and Peace is considered one of the best books ever written. Not without reason!

In about 1500 pages Tolstoy describes life in all its diversity. His writing is so flawless and natural that you almost forget you’re reading. It’s as if you’re standing quietly in the corner of the room where Natasha gives her first kiss; as if you’re sitting on a small chair waiting for the child to be born in the next room; you can understand completely how young cadet Nicholas Rostov falls in love with the tsar.

The 580 real and fictional characters come to life. You’re getting to know their deepest feelings and desires. You’re becoming emotionally involved. With the female characters just as much as with the male. It’s a well known fact that Tolstoy’s wife Sophia helped him with that, but that doesn’t make it less brilliant. Tolstoy gives us everything that you can expect from a novel; intrigue, love stories, duelling, birth and death.

A good book is an excellent way to experience life from the comfort of your chair. Just like a good travel story is often better than the actual trip, this book of life is larger than real life. Later Tolstoy wrote that he had written War and Peace to amuse his readers. He was not giving himself enough credit; War and Peace is amusing, inspiring, surprising and amazing and much more.

Discover Tolstoy!

What are you waiting for?! Buy, download or borrow these 1500 pages of pure entertainment. Discover for yourself what it is like to teach those arrogant French a lesson: “Oh, how I will slash at him!” thought Rostov, gripping the hilt of his sabre…